The two hemispheres of our brain are connected with each other just like two souls. Both are incomplete without each other. wait! what?
The corpus callosum is basically a set of axons which behaves like a bridge that exchange various types of information from the left hemisphere to the right and right hemisphere to the left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of our body and the left hemisphere controls the right side of our body.
So what would happen if the corpus callosum was cut?
Well, occasionally the corpus callosum was surgically removed as a treatment for severe epilepsy. A condition characterized by repeated episodes of synchronized neural activity because of decreased release of the GABA neurotransmitter.
Split-brain people ( people without a corpus callosum are called split-brain people) have their intellectual level and motivation maintained ,they can perform most of the day-to-day tasks very effectively. I said MOST because there are some tasks that they can’t do very efficiently or they just try doing until they get frustrated and start breaking things.
Tasks such as threading a needle or attaching a fishhook to a line becomes very difficult for them. In one particular case, it was reported that when a lady went for shopping, whenever the lady would pick up an object with one hand and place it in her trolley , the other hand would lift the object back up and place it back to its initial position. sounds creepy! but this was a temporary condition though.
For some reason if you get your corpus callosum severed, you would be able to do one special thing that normal people wouldn’t be able to. split-brain people have no trouble planning two actions at once. For example, try drawing a perfect circle with your left hand and a square with your right hand at the same time. That’s some skill!
However a split-brain patient cannot describe something after feeling it with their left hand but can with the right hand. This is because when we touch something with our left hand, the information is received in the right hemisphere, but to describe what we feel, our right hemisphere has to send this information via the corpus callosum to the left hemisphere as speech is located in the left hemisphere.
But with split brain people ,this exchange of information does not take place because the corpus callosum has been removed and therefore they cannot describe what they feel or see with their left hand or left eye.
In conclusion, the corpus callosum like any other brain part is very important. It helps us understand and perceive the world in a complete way. If the two halves of our brain were not connected, you would have a hard time trying to the most simplest tasks.
For case study and more in-depth understanding here’s a link A severed corpus callosum
Kalat, J. Biological psychology (click the link to buy the book)